Spatial and temporal trends of target organic and inorganic micropollutants in Lake Maggiore and Lake Lugano (Italian-Swiss water bodies): contamination in sediments and biota.
Licia Maria Guzzella, Stefano Novati, Nadia Casatta, Claudio Roscioli, Lucia Valsecchi, Andrea Binelli, Marco Parolini, Nicola Solcà, Roberta Bettinetti, Marina Manca, Michela Mazzoni, Roberta Piscia, Pietro Volta, Aldo Marchetto, Andrea Lami, Laura Marziali.
Hydrobiologia, 2018

Abstract

DDx, PCBs, PBDEs, Hg, and As contamination in sediments and aquatic organisms of different trophic levels (zooplankton, mussel, fish) were analyzed in Lake Maggiore and Lake Lugano, two large deep perialpine lakes. In the period 2001–2015, we analyzed the spatial and temporal trends of the considered pollutants to detect potential contamination sources and to compare concentrations with Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQGs) or existing Quality Standards (QSs). DDx and Hg contamination deriving from past industrial activities in the Pallanza Basin still exceeded SQGs in sediments and QSs in fish, with potential risks for the ecosystem. Banned in Europe in 1985, PCBs showed low residual values, while recent PBDE peaks resulted in the exceedance of the QSs for biota in both lakes, probably due to current industrial activities. Arsenic mainly derives from geochemical origin. The analysis of the biomagnification of toxicants in a pelagic food chain in Lake Maggiore (zooplankton–fish) according to a stable isotope approach is also presented, according to both the Trophic Magnification Factor and the Trophic Leveladjusted BioMagnification Factor: the importance of seasonality and a Hg > DDx ≈ PBDEs biomagnification capacity were observed. Low PCB bioaccumulation was detected in biota, probably because equilibrium was not reached yet in young fish.

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